Whichever Stage You Are At In Your 4D Project

iRes-Geo team has combined 100 years+ experience in 4D seismic qualitative and quantitative interpretation. The team has past experience as developers and practitioners of a full spectrum of cutting-edge 4D reservoir monitoring technologies used in the North Sea region.

We are committed to providing flexible and problem-driven expertise and solutions to clients all around the world.

4D Seismic

Advanced 4D Seismic Studies and Technologies

Entry-level Solution
  • 4D Feasibility Study, Portfolio Screening, and North Sea Analogue

    Reference List
    Briceno, A., MacBeth, C., and Mangriotis, M.D., 2016, Towards an Effective Petro-elastic Model for Simulator to Seismic Studies. Extended Abstract, EAGE Conference, Vienna.

    Floricich, M., Macbeth, C. and STAPLES, R., 2005, An engineering–driven approach for separating pressure and saturation using 4D seismic: Application to a Jurassic reservoir in the UK North Sea, SEG 2005, Houston.

    Hall, A., Macbeth, C., Barkved, O.I., and Wild, P., 2005, Cross–matching with interpreted warping of 3D streamer and 3D ocean–bottom–cable data at Valhall for time–lapse assessment, Geophysical Prospecting, 53 , no.2, 283–297

    MacBeth, C.,Geng, C., and Chassagne, R., 2016, A fast-track simulator to seismic proxy for quantitative 4D seismic analysis, SEG Conference 2016, Dallas.

    Macbeth, C., Stammeijer, J., and Ormerod, M., 2003, A petroelastic–based feasibility study of monitoring pressure depletion in a UKCS gas reservoir, 73rd Internat. Mtg., Soc. Explor. Geophys., Dallas, USA.

  • 4D AVO Modelling, and Pressure and Saturation Inversion

    Reference List
    Almaskeri, Y. and Macbeth, C., 2005, Transforming 4D seismic to pressure and saturation using constraints from production data, Second Annual Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, Cairo.

    Carter, S., 2000, Predicting the success of time–lapse ocean bottom seismic AVO analysis using a petrophysics to AVO link, MSc. Thesis, Heriot–Watt University.

    Corzo, M., Macbeth, C., and Barkved, O., 2013, Estimation of pore-pressure change in a compacting reservoir from time-lapse seismic data, Geophysical Prospecting, 61, 1022–1034.

    Floricich, M., Macbeth, C., and Staples, R., 2005, An engineering–driven approach for separating pressure and saturation using 4D seismic: Application to a Jurassic reservoir in the UK North Sea, SEG Conference, Houston.

    Floricich, M., Soldo, J., and Macbeth, C., 2004, An engineering approach for pressure and saturation estimation from time–lapse seismic data, XII Venezuelan Geophysical Congress, Caracas, Venezuela.

    Hall, S.A., Macbeth, C., Stammeijer, J., and Omerod, M., 2006, Time–lapse seismic analysis of pressure depletion in the Southern Gas Basin, Geophysical Prospecting, 54, 63–74.

    Hodgson, N., Macbeth, C., Duranti, L., Rickett, J., and Nihei, K., 2007, Inverting for pressure using time-lapse time-strain: Application to a compacting GOM reservoir, EAGE 69th Conference & Exhibition – London, UK. 11-14.

    Kindi, A.L., Macbeth, C., and Shams, A., 2006, Seismic monitoring of pressure depletion evaluated using azimuthal AVO data?, SEG Conference, New Orleans.

    Kudarova, A., Hatchell, P., Brain, J., and MacBeth, C., 2016, Offset-dependence of production-related 4D time-shifts: real data examples and modeling, SEG conference 2016, Dallas.

    Macbeth, C., 2004, A classification for the pressure–sensitivity properties of a sandstone rock frame, Geophysics, 69 , no.2, 497–510.

    Obidegwu, D., Chassagne, R., and Macbeth, C., 2015, Using 4D Seismic Surveys and History Matching to Estimate Critical and Maximum Gas Saturation, IPTC conference.

    Omofoma, V. E., and MacBeth, C., 2016, Quantification of Reservoir Pressure-sensitivity Using Multiple Monitor 4D Seismic Data. EAGE Conference, Vienna.

    Ricard, L., Macbeth, C., Hajnasser, Y., and Schutjens, P., 2012, Evaluation of pore pressure diffusion into a shale overburden and sideburden induced by production-related changes in reservoir fluid pressure, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 9, 345-358.

    Ribeiro, C., and Macbeth, C., 2005, Inversion for reservoir pressure and saturation changes in the Foinaven field, UK, SEG, Houston.

    Ribeiro, C., and Macbeth, C., 2004, A petroelastic–based approach to pressure and saturation estimation using 4D seismic, SEG Conference, Denver.

    Sansonowski, R.C., and Macbeth, C., 2008, Quantitative Estimation of Pressure and Saturation Changes Using 4D Seismic: A case study in the Marlin Field, Campos Basin, Brazil, EAGE Conference, Rome.

    Tatanova, M., and Hatchell, P., 2012, Time-lapse AVO on deepwater OBN seismic at the Mars field: 82nd Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/segam2012-1259.1.

    Wong, M.Y., and MacBeth, C., 2016, R-factor Recovery via Geertsma’s Pressure Inversion Assisted by Engineering Concepts.

    Wong, M., Macbeth, C., and Bertrand, A., 2015, Engineering Consistent Constraints for the Inversion of Changes in Pressure and Saturation on Ekofisk, WS02-C04, EAGE Conference Madrid.

  • Rock Physics Model Analysis and Calibration

    Reference List
    Alvarez, E., Macbeth, C., 2012, Constraining the petro-elastic model with a flatlander’s interpretation of the 4D signal, EAGE/EUROPEC Conference, Copenhagen.

    Briceno, A., MacBeth, C., and Mangriotis, M.D., 2016, Towards an Effective Petro-elastic Model for Simulator to Seismic Studies. Extended Abstract, EAGE Conference, Vienna.

    Floricich, M., Macbeth, C., Stammeijer, J., Staples, R., Evans, A., and Eijksman, N., 2006, Determination of a seismic and engineering consistent petro–elastic model for time–lapse seismic studies: Application to the Schiehallion Field, SEG Conference, New Orleans.

    Kirstetter, O., Corbett, P., Somerville, J. and Macbeth, C., 2006, Elasticity/saturation relationships using flow simulation from an outcrop analogue for 4D seismic modelling, Petroleum Geoscience, 12 , no.3, 205–219.

    Macbeth, C., and Almaskeri, Y., 2006, Extraction of permeability from time–lapsed seismic data, Geophysical Prospecting, 54, 333–350.

  • Non-repeatability Cross-equalization

    Reference List
    Al-ismaili, I.Y., Warner, M.R., 2002, Non-linear cross/qualization of time lapse seismic surveys using artifical neural networks, 64th EAGE Conference, Extended Abstract.

    Bertrand, A., and Macbeth, C., 2005, Repeatability enhancement in deep–water permanent seismic installations: a dynamic correction for seawater velocity variations, Geophysical Prospecting, 53 , no.2, 229–242.

    Bunch, A. W. H., and White, R. E., 1985, CROSS-EQUALISATION OF SEISMIC TRACES: Geoexploration, No. 23, 239–256.

    Hughes, J. K., 2000, Examination of seismic repeatability as a key element of time-lapse seismic monitoring: SPE Reservoir Eval. & Eng., Vol. 3, No. 6.

    Li, G. and Purdue G., 2001, Effective processing of nonrepeatable 4-D seismic data to monitor heavy oil SAGD steam flood at East Senlac, Saskatchewan, Canada: The Leading Edge, 20, 54-61.

    Pevzner, R., Shulakava, V., Kepic, A., and Urosevic, W., 2010, Repeatability analysis of land time-lapse seismic data CO2CRC Otway pilot project case study: Geophysics Prospecting, 59, 66-77.

    Rickett, J. E., and D. E. Lumley, 2001, Cross-equalization data processing for time-lapse seismic reservoir monitoring: A case study from the Gulf of Mexico: Geophysics, 66, 1015–1025.

    Ross, C. P., Cunningham, G. B., and Weber, D. P., 1996, Inside the cross-equalization black box: The Leading Edge, 15, 12331240.